Useful Information

Linear Measure (Imperial)

  • 1 Inch (72 Points or 12 Lines or 3 Barleycorns)
  • 1 Foot (12 Inches)
  • 1 Cubit [forearm] (18 - 22 Inches)
  • 1 Yard (3 Feet)
  • 1 Fathom (6 Feet)
  • 1 Chain [nautical use only] (15 Feet)
  • 1 Cable (100 Fathoms)
  • 1 Pole [sometimes Rod or Perch] (5.5 Yards)
  • 1 Chain [Gunter’s] (4 Poles or 22 Yards)
  • 1 Furlong [‘furrow-long’] (10 Chains or 220 Yards)
  • 1 Statute Mile (8 Furlongs or 1760 Yards)
  • 1 Nautical Mile [one minute or (1.1515 Statute Miles) sixtieth part of one degree of the Great Circle of the Earth, fixed by the British Admiralty at 6080 Feet]
  • 1 League (3 Nautical Miles, sometimes 3 Statute Miles)

Square Measure (Imperial)

  • 1 Perch (1 Square Pole or 30.25 Square Yards)
  • 1 Rood (40 Perches or 1210 Square Yards)
  • 1 Acre - the standard amount of land one man could plough in a day with one horse. [1 Chain x 1 Furlong or 10 Square Chains or 4 Roods or 4,840 sq yds] 
  • 1 Square Mile (640 Acres)

Old Scottish Measure

  • 1 Ell (37.0598 Imperial Inches)
  • 1 Fall (6 Ells)
  • 1 Scottish Chain (4 Falls or 74.1196 Imperial Feet)
  • 1 Scottish Furlong (10 Scottish Chains)
  • 1 Scottish Mile (8 Scottish Furlongs or 1976.5 Imperial Yards or 1.123 Statute Miles)
  • 1 Scottish Acre (40 Square Falls or 1.261 Imperial Acres)

The Metric System

Based on the Metre (39.3709 Imperial Inches), which is a ten-millionth part of one quarter of the distance round the world following a meridian (i.e. via both poles).

  • 1 Square Decimetre (100 Square Centimetres)
  • 1 Square Metre [‘Centiare’] (100 Square Decimetres or 10,000 Square Centimetres)
  • 1 Acre (100 Square Metres)
  • 1 Hectare (100 Acres or 10,000 Square Metres)

Capacity

  • 1 Fluid Drachm (60 Minims)
  • 1 Fluid Ounce (8 Fluid Drachms)
  • 1 Gill (5 Fluid Ounces)
  • 1 Pint (4 Gills)
  • 1 Quart (2 Pints)
  • 1 Gallon [volume of 10lbs water] (4 Quarts)
  • 1 Peck (2 Gallons)
  • 1 Bushel (8 Gallons)
  • 1 Quarter (8 Bushels)
  • 1 Chaldron (4 Quarters)
  • 1 Last (10 Quarters)
  • 1 Hectolitre is 100 Litres (2.7498 Bushels)

Weight

  • 1 Grain [one dry wheat grain] (0.0648 Gram)
  • 1 Apothecaries’ Scruple (20 Grains)
  • 1 Troy Pennyweight (24 Grains)
  • 1 Apothecaries’ Drachm (3 Scruples or 60 Grains)
  • 1 Ounce [Troy or Apothecaries’] (480 Grains or 20 Troy Pennyweight or 8 Apothecaries’ Drachms, about 1.1 Imperial Ounces)
  • Imperial (Avoirdupois) Weights 1 Dram (27.34 Grains)
  • 1 Ounce (16 Drams)
  • 1 Pound (16 Ounces)
  • 1 Stone (14 Pounds)
  • 1 Quarter (28 Pounds)
  • 1 Quintal [or Cental] (100 Pounds)
  • 1 Hundredweight (112 Pounds or 8 Stone)
  • 1 Ton (20 Hundredweight)
  • 1 Cubic Centimetre of water weighs 1 Gram
  • 1 Cubic Decimetre [1 Litre] of water weighs 1 Kilogram
  • 1 Cubic Metre [‘Stare’] of water weighs 1 Tonne

Wine Measure

  • 1 Bottle (1 sixth of 1 Gallon or 0.757 Litres)
  • 1 Magnum (2 Bottles)
  • 1 Imperial (8 Bottles)
  • 1 Anker (10 Gallons)
  • 1 Runlet (18 Gallons)
  • 1 Barrel (31.5 Gallons)
  • 1 Tierce (42 Gallons)
  • 1 Hogshead (63 Gallons)
  • 1 Puncheon (2 Tierces or 84 Gallons)
  • 1 Pipe (2 Hogsheads)
  • 1 Tun (2 Pipes)

Beer Measure

  • 1 Firkin (8 Gallons of Ale, 9 of Beer)
  • 1 Kilderkin (18 Gallons)
  • 1 Barrel (36 Gallons)
  • 1 Hogshead (1.5 Barrels or 54 Gallons)
  • 1 Puncheon (72 Gallons)
  • 1 Butt (2 Hogsheads)
  • 1 Tun (2 Butts)

Champagne Bottles

  • 1 Bottle (0.8 Litres)
  • 1 Magnum (2 Bottles)
  • 1 Jereboam (4 Bottles)
  • 1 Rehoboam (6 Bottles)
  • 1 Methuselah (8 Bottles)
  • 1 Salmanazar (12 Bottles)
  • 1 Balthazar (16 Bottles)
  • 1 Nebuchadnezzar (20 Bottles)

Timber

  • 1 Hoppus Foot (about 1 Cubic Foot in the round, under bark; the industry counts about 28 to 1 Cubic Metre)
  • 1 Cord [firewood] (a stack 4 Feet high, 4 Feet across and 8 Feet long, weighing 1.5 Tons fresh or 1 Ton dry)
  • 1 Faggot [branchwood] (a tied bundle 2 Feet in girth and 4'6" long)
  • 1 Cubic Metre of fresh felled timber weighs a little less than 1 Tonne. By comparison, 1 Tonne of harvested wheat occupies 1.35 Cubic Metres, silage 1.3 – 1.4, potatoes 1.55, and a Tonne of dug soil or stone occupies less than half a Cubic Metre.

To Convert Multiply By

  • Feet to Metres 0.3048
  • Metres to Feet 3.281
  • Miles to Kilometres 1.609
  • Kilometres to Miles 0.6214
  • Square Feet to Square Metres 0.0929
  • Square Metres to Square Feet 10.764
  • Square Miles to Square Kilometres 2.59
  • Square Kilometres to Square Miles 0.3861
  • Acres to Hectares 0.4047
  • Hectares to Acres 2.471
  • Gallons to Litres 4.546
  • Litres to Gallons 0.22
  • Cubic Feet to Cubic Metres 0.0283
  • Cubic Metres to Cubic Feet 35.31
  • Pounds to Kilograms 0.4536
  • Kilograms to Pounds 2.205
  • Tons to Tonnes 1.016
  • Tonnes to Tons 0.9842
  • Degrees Fahrenheit to Centigrade deduct 32 and multiply by 0.5555
  • Degrees Centigrade to Fahrenheit multiply by 1.8 and add 32

 

The Standard Quarter Days

England

• Lady Day 25th March
• Midsummer 24th June
• Michaelmas 29th September
• Christmas 25th December

Scotland

• Candlemas Old Style 13th February / New Style 2nd February
• Whit Sunday Old Style 26th May / New Style 15th May / Modern* 28th May
• Lammas Old Style 12th August / New Style 1st August
• Martinmas Old Style 22nd November / New Style 11th November / Modern 28th November

* Term and Quarter Days (Scotland) Act 1990.

Roman Numerals

  • I (1); V (5); X (10); L (50); C (100); D (500); M (1000).

Mensuration

To set out a right-angle:

  • Use the 3-4-5 rule. Construct a triangle that has a perpendicular 3 units in length, a base-line of 4 units and a hypotenuse of 5 units; the angle between the perpendicular and the base is 90 degrees.
  • Alternatively, from the point at which the right-angle is required, measure an equal distance either way along the line to be bisected; then increase the length of your measure (1.5 times the original distance is suitable) and, on the side of the base-line where a perpendicular is required, describe an arc from each of the 2 equidistant points. The point where the arcs cross is at 90 degrees from the starting point.

To find the area:

  • of a rectangle (or square) multiply the length by the breadth;
  • of a parallelogram multiply the base by the perpendicular height;
  • of a rhombus multiply the base by the average of the 2 sides;
  • of a triangle (the basic shape in land surveying) multiply half the base by the perpendicular height; alternatively, let ‘S’ be half of the sum of the lengths of the 3 sides, the area is the square root of S X (S – side 1) X (S – side 2) X (S – side 3).

Circles:

  • To find the area multiply the diameter squared by 0.7854, or
  • the radius squared by pi (about 3.1416), or
  • the circumference squared by 0.0796, or
  • the circumference by either one quarter of the diameter or half the radius, or
  • the radius by the diameter by 1.57.
  • To find the circumference multiply the diameter by pi (about 3.1416), or the square root of the area by 3.54.
  • To find the diameter multiply the circumference by 0.3183, or the square root of the area by 1.1283.
  • To find the radius multiply the circumference by 0.1591, or the square root of the area by 0.564, or halve the diameter.
  • The area of an ellipse is the major diameter multiplied by the minor diameter multiplied by 0.7854.
  • The surface area of a cylinder is the length multiplied by the circumference plus the areas of both ends; its volume is the area of one end multiplied by the length.
  • The surface area of a sphere is the diameter squared multiplied by 0.5236; its volume is the diameter cubed multiplied by 0.5236.
  • The surface area of a cone is the area of the base, plus the circumference, multiplied by half the perpendicular height; its volume is the area of the base multiplied by one-third the height.
  • The volume of a pyramid is found in the same way as a cone; that of a wedge is the area of the base multiplied by half the perpendicular height.

Mortgage Table

Annual sum required to redeem £1000
Years5%7.5%10%12.5%15%
5 230.98 247.16 263.80 280.86 298.32
10 129.50 145.68 162.74 180.62 199.25
15 96.35 113.29 131.47 150.77 171.01
20 80.24 98.09 117.46 138.10 159.76
25 70.96 89.71 110.17 131.94 154.70
30 65.05 84.67 106.08 128.76 152.30

Life Tables (English, no. 12)

 


 
 

% Surviving

Probability of surviving another decade (%)

Further life expectancy for survivors (years)

Age

M

F

M

F

M

F

10

96.9

97.6

99.25

99.67

60.2

65.8

20

96.3

97.3

98.94

99.43

50.6

55.9

30

95.3

96.8

98.33

98.77

41.1

46.2

40

93.8

95.7

95.57

96.99

31.6

36.7

50

90.1

93.1

86.23

92.82

22.7

27.6

60

78.9

87.0

67.11

81.65

15.1

19.1

70

54.8

72.5

38.66

54.21

9.3

11.8

80

22.9

41.9

11.33

17.96

5.2

6.4

90

3.05

8.78

1.85

2.40

3.0

3.3

100

0.01

0.26

-

-

2.0

2.0

Average life expectancy in the UK is 76 (world range: Japan 79; Sierra Leone 43).

Order of Heirs and Successors

1. Eldest son
2. Grandson by eldest son
3. Granddaughter by eldest son
4. Younger son
5. Grandson by younger son
6. Granddaughter by younger son
7. Daughter
8. Daughters’ first-born children (equally)
9. Daughters’ later children
10. Younger brothers (descending)
11. Elder brothers (ascending)
12. Sisters (equally)
13. Half brother
14. Half sister
15. Father
16. Father’s younger brother
17. Father’s elder brother
18. Father's sister
19. Father’s half-brother/sister (equally)
20. Paternal grandfather